Mobile Learning: Challenges for Teachers of Indian Open Universities
“Mobile Learning” (m-Learning) has emerged as a trend in the field of Open and Distance Learning (ODL). It is removing the time and geographical barriers for learning by placing learning opportunities at the fingertips of learners. ODL institutes in India are also adopting mlearning in different forms; however, it is not fully implemented due to various reasons. This paper aims to explore possible challenges faced by teachers of Open Universities of India in implementation of m-learning. In this context the teachers of Indian Open Universities were surveyed to identify and rate the intensity of various challenges in the successful implementation of m-learning in the ODL system. The findings from respondents (n = 72) revealed that out of thirteen (13) challenges presented to them, the three most important challenges were: (a) lack of support for instructional design for m-learning; (b) lack of institutional policy for m-learning and (c) lack of infrastructure/technological support. These barriers were extrinsic in nature as they were institution dependent. The least important challenges were found to be: (a) intrusion on personal time due to 24 x 7 access; (b) reluctance to adopt technology and (c) difficulty of use. These barriers were intrinsic in nature as they were person-driven. Challenges of m-learning were found to be the same irrespective of gender. Institutions need to provide adequate institutional support in terms of policy, infrastructure and instructional design for the successful implementation of m-learning.
Abas, Z. W., Chng, L. P., & Mansor, N. (2009). A Study on Learner Readiness for Mobile Learning at Open University Malaysia. In proceedings of IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning (pp. 151–157).
Ally, M., & Prieto-Blázquez, J. (2014). What is the Future of Mobile Learning in Education? RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, 11(1), 142-151.
Ally, M., & Tsinakos, A. (Eds.). (2014). Increasing access through mobile learning. Vancouver, BC: Commonwealth of Learning
Awadhiya, A. K., Miglani, A., & Gowthaman, K. (2014). ICT Usage by Distance Learners in India. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 15(3), 242-253.
Bhat, S. A., & Al Saleh, S. (2015). Mobile Learning: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Computer Applications, 114(11), 1-5, Retrieved from http://research.ijcaonline.org/volume114/number11/pxc3901406.pdf
Blackwell, C. K., Lauricella, A. R., & Wartella, E. (2014). Factors Influencing Digital Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Computers & Education, 77, 82-90.
Bozkurt, A., Akgun-Ozbek, E., Yilmazel, S., Erdogdu, E., Ucar, H., Guler, E., & Aydin, C. H. (2015). Trends in Distance Education Research: A Content Analysis of Journals 2009-2013. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(1), 330-363.
Brown., K., Campbell, S. W., & Ling, R. (2011). Mobile Phones Bridging the Digital Divide for Teens in the US. Future Internet, 3(2), 144-158.
Census of India. (2011). Census of India, New Delhi: Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Govt. of India.
Cheon, J., Lee, S., Crooks, S. M., & Song, J. (2012). An Investigation of Mobile Learning Readiness in Higher Education Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Computers & Education, 59(3), 1054-1064.
Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile Learning in Review: Opportunities and Challenges for Learners, Teachers, and Institutions. In Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, pp. 21-30, Queensland University of Technology,
Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Sadik, O., Sendurur, E., & Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration Practices: A Critical Relationship. Computers & Education, 59(2), 423-435.
Fozdar, B. I., & Kumar, L. S. (2007). Mobile Learning and Student Retention. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(2), 1-18.
Gikas, J., & Grant, M. M. (2013). Mobile Computing Devices in Higher Education: Student Perspectives on Learning With Cellphones, Smartphones & Social Media. The Internet and Higher Education, 19, 18-26.
Hashemi, M., Azizinezhad, M., Najafi, V., & Nesari, A. J. (2011). What is Mobile Learning? Challenges and Capabilities. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2477-2481.
Hussin, S., Manap, M. R., Amir, Z., & Krish, P. (2012). Mobile Learning Readiness Among Malaysian Students at Higher Learning Institutes. Asian Social Science, 8(12), 276.
Kukulska-Hulme, A., Sharples, M., Milrad, M., Arnedillo-Sánchez, I., & Vavoula, G. (2009). Innovation in Mobile Learning: A European Perspective. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 1(1), 13-35.
Looi, C. K., Seow, P., Zhang, B., So, H. J., Chen, W., & Wong, L. H. (2010). Leveraging Mobile Technology for Sustainable Seamless Learning: A Research Agenda. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), 154-169.
MoEA. (2015). India to Overtake US in Smartphones by 2016. Retrieved from http://indiainbusiness.nic.in/newdesign/index.php?param=newsdetail/10367
Motiwalla, L. F. (2007). Mobile Learning: A Framework and Evaluation. Computers & Education, 49(3), 581-596.
Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Glazewski, K. D., Newby, T. J., & Ertmer, P. A. (2010). Teacher Value Beliefs Associated With Using Technology: Addressing Professional and Student Needs. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1321-1335.
Panda, S., & Mishra, S. (2007). E-Learning in a Mega Open University: Faculty Attitude, Barriers and Motivators. Educational Media International, 44(4), 323-338.
Peters, K. (2007). m-Learning: Positioning Educators for a Mobile, Connected Future. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 8(2), 1-17.
Sharples, M. (2013). Mobile Learning: Research, Practice and Challenges. Distance Education in China, 3(5), 5-11.
Srivastava, M., & Rao, D. (2015). Restructuring of Indian Open Universities: Need of the Hour! University News, 53(2), 13-22.
Tossell, C. C., Kortum, P., Shepard, C., Rahmati, A., & Zhong, L. (2014). You Can Lead a Horse to Water but You Cannot Make Him Learn: Smartphone Use in Higher Education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(4), 713-724.
TRAI. (2015). Highlights of Telecom Subscription Data as on 28th February, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReadData/PressRealease/Document/PR-TSD-Feb-10042015.pdf
Wang, Y. S., Wu, M. C., & Wang, H. Y. (2009). Investigating the Determinants and Age and Gender Differences in the Acceptance of Mobile Learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 92-
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 International License.